PostgreSQL's STRING_AGG() Function - A Comprehensive Guide


When navigating the realm of PostgreSQL, developers often stumble upon a myriad of functions, with the STRING_AGG() function being a frequently utilized, yet occasionally misunderstood, tool. This guide seeks to demystify STRING_AGG(), taking you from its basics to its more advanced usage capabilities.

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Table of Contents

  • Basics of the STRING_AGG() Function for PostgreSQL
  • Advanced Uses of STRING_AGG()
  • Common Mistakes to Avoid
  • Practical Examples
  • Conclusion

1. Basics of the STRING_AGG() Function for PostgreSQL

At its core, STRING_AGG() is an aggregate function in PostgreSQL tailored for string concatenation.


1 STRING_AGG ( expression, separator [order_by_clause] )
  • expression: Any valid character string. If you’re working with other types, you need to explicitly cast them to the string type.
  • separator: A separator function, e.g. AS, etc. This function should not be appended at the end of the string if an ORDER clause is in use.
  • order_by_clause (optional): Dictates the order of concatenated results. The format is:
1 SELECT 2 student_name, 3 STRING_AGG(hobby, ',') 4 FROM 5 student_hobbies 6 GROUP BY 7 student_name;

2. Advanced Use Cases of STRING_AGG() in Postgres

2.1 Concatenating Distinct Values

To prevent repeated values, you can employ DISTINCT with STRING_AGG():

1 SELECT 2 country, 3 STRING_AGG(DISTINCT email, ';') AS distinct_email_list 4 FROM 5 customer 6 GROUP BY 7 country;

2.2 Filtering Before Aggregation

To aggregate only specific rows, use a CASE statement:

1 SELECT 2 country, 3 STRING_AGG(CASE WHEN active = TRUE THEN email ELSE NULL END, ';') AS active_email_list 4 FROM 5 customer 6 GROUP BY 7 country;

3. Common Mistakes to Avoid

As with all functions, the use of STRING_AGG() can be a source of errors. Here are some common mistakes you should avoid:

3.1 Overlooking the GROUP BY Clause

Without the GROUP BY clause, STRING_AGG() will aggregate all rows, possibly leading to undesired results.

3.2 Misunderstanding the ORDER BY Clause

The optional ORDER BY clause within STRING_AGG() orders the strings being concatenated, not the overall result set.

3.3 Ignoring NULL Values

STRING_AGG() omits NULL values. To handle NULLs, consider using the COALESCE() function.

4. Practical Examples of the STRING_AGG() Function

4.1 Aggregating and Ordering by Date

This comes in handy when logging events:

1 SELECT 2 user_id, 3 STRING_AGG(event, ',' ORDER BY event_date DESC) AS recent_events 4 FROM 5 user_events 6 GROUP BY 7 user_id;

4.2 Nested Aggregations

For more intricate queries, combine STRING_AGG() with other aggregation functions:

1 SELECT 2 department, 3 STRING_AGG(employee_name, ',') AS employee_list, 4 AVG(salary) AS average_salary 5 FROM 6 employees 7 GROUP BY 8 department;

From here, we will leave it to you to explore the capabilities of the function. Make sure to visit our blog for more concrete examples, grab a free trial of DbVisualizer here, and until next time.


The STRING_AGG() function in PostgreSQL, while seemingly straightforward, is versatile and powerful. By mastering both its fundamental and advanced applications, you can optimize database operations, making them both efficient and insightful. Whether for basic concatenation or intricate data aggregation, STRING_AGG() proves itself as an essential tool in the PostgreSQL toolkit.

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